Category Archives: Prescription Drug

Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

Recognizing Prescription Drug AbusePatients abuse prescription medications when they take them in unintended ways. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, 52 million adolescents and adults have taken prescription drugs in unintended ways at least once. Prescription drug abuse jeopardizes patient health and can contribute to unsafe behaviors such as driving while intoxicated. Recognizing the warning signs of prescription drug abuse can save lives.

Most Commonly Abused Prescription Drugs

The most abused prescription medications in the United States fall into three separate categories: pain relievers, sedatives, and stimulants. The most commonly abused pain relievers include Fentanyl, hydrocodone, and oxycodone. Sedatives that are most often abused include central nervous system depressants such as Valium, Xanax, and Klonopin. ADHD medicines such as Adderall and Ritalin are some of the most commonly abused stimulants.

Depending on the type of drug and the dosage, each of these prescription medications has the potential to turn into an addictive substance. People who are prone to addictive behaviors may slip into abusive patterns without realizing the physical and mental harm involved. Most of these medications are only prescribed for short periods of time or on a limited, as-needed basis. Taking more than a certain amount per day over as few as 1–3 months can constitute an addiction. Once addicted, many prescription drug abusers require medical assistance to detox and recover.

Where Do People Obtain Prescription Drugs?

Prescription drug abusers may use several channels to obtain the quantity of medication needed to maintain an addiction habit. While some rely on personal prescriptions from one physician, most abusers access prescription drugs from a variety of other sources:

  • Stranger or drug dealer
  • Online
  • Family member or friend
  • Prescriptions from multiple physicians

Considering the high number of prescriptions written every year, sources of legitimate medications vary from user to user. When drug abusers receive prescriptions from multiple sources, they may struggle to give up the habit.

Signs And Symptoms Of Prescription Drug Abuse

After addiction takes hold, most addicts attempt to hide the habit from friends and loved ones. Many addicts are ashamed, feel guilty, or want to stop using, but they don’t know how. Intervention is difficult, but it often serves as a saving grace for those who struggle to battle an addiction. Look for the following symptoms and warning signs of prescription drug abuse:

  • “Losing” prescriptions on a regular basis and asking for refills
  • Taking medications in an unintended manner (e.g., crushing the pills first)
  • Going to the doctor regularly with the same symptoms to receive a new prescription
  • Consuming other addictive substances, such as alcohol, more often than usual
  • Unexplained irritability
  • Unusual mood swings
  • Unusual sleepiness or excitement
  • Poor memory
  • Unusual pupil dilation
  • Unexplained memory loss or poor coordination

Other warning signs associated with prescription drug abuse may include:

  • Finding an empty but recently filled prescription bottle in the trash
  • Finding unmarked bottles with prescription pills lying around
  • Observing someone behaving secretively or requiring more privacy than usual

Since prescription drugs act on the body in different ways, the number of signs and symptoms vary accordingly. Individual tolerances and body chemistry also affect how drug addiction manifests in individuals. However, any unexplained or unusual behavior may indicate a possible addiction. Openly discuss prescription drug use with the person suspected of drug abuse, and take note of any avoidance behaviors, irritability, and possible lies.

Who Can Identify Warning Signs Of Prescription Drug Abuse

Family members and loved ones often play an integral role in identifying and addressing prescription drug abuse. They usually have the drive and the willingness to ask someone about prescription drug use and talk to physicians and potential treatment centers about an intervention. Pharmacists and physicians may also play a role in identifying drug abuse, if they have the opportunity. However, these professionals can’t always recognize drug abuse symptoms in the limited amount of time they have with patients. Individuals may also recognize a problem within themselves.

Treatment plays a crucial role in prescription drug abuse recovery. With the right support, individuals can combat the effects of withdrawal and find a permanent solution for prescription drug addiction.

A National Epidemic: Prescription Drug Abuse

A National Epidemic: Prescription Drug Abuse

Prescription drug abuse has become an epidemic in our nation. The last decade has seen a sharp rise in addiction overdoses and deaths related to non-medical prescription drug use. Narcotic pain relievers present issues in particular, and their abuse costs the United States billions of dollars per year. Money is lost to criminal justice expenses, treatment, medical compensation, and more.

Overdoses And Deaths Climbing Quickly

Drug-related poisoning or overdosing is now the leading cause of death due to unintentional injuries. That number is, astoundingly, even greater than the people who are killed in motor vehicle accidents. Prescription drug overdoses are more common than any of the illicit or illegal drugs, including heroin (another opiate). In fact, nearly 50,000 people lost their lives due to overdoses just last year.

There are several risks connected to the abuse of opiates, including death. The number of emergency room visits related to these drugs is highest for individuals between 21 and 29 years old. Most fatal cases, however, involved middle-aged Caucasians. The threat of death increases in relation to the number and size of doses used. Users may seek to maintain a constant “high” to avoid any of the uncomfortable symptoms of withdrawal. Instead of looking for help, they’ll consume the drugs more often and at continuously larger doses.

Other factors influence the risk of overdose and death as well. A higher number of prescriptions, early refills, concomitant use of other drugs (such as benzodiazepines), and “doctor shopping” can all be connected to serious cases. Doctor or pharmacy shopping is especially harmful to the community. With this practice, the individual will visit several facilities to gain as many prescriptions as possible. Each script will be dropped off at a different location to avoid suspicion. Actions like these make physicians cautious when prescribing opiates, even to those who need them, reducing treatment quality for people seeking drugs for strictly medical purposes.

Although older people are seen most commonly in emergency rooms, many teenagers are also experimenting with prescription drugs. Surveys have shown that more than 20% of high schoolers admit to taking a drug when it was not prescribed for them. These statistics are rather surprising, and the only higher number for use among them is marijuana. Data also suggests that teens in rural areas are much more likely to illicitly use prescription drugs.

A sad truth is that newborns are also at risk of opioid-related health issues. An addicted mother will give birth to an addicted baby. These infants are then forced to suffer terrible withdrawal symptoms in their first days of life. Unfortunately, the effects are often much greater for the newborns. Common symptoms include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Excessive crying
  • Fever
  • Irritability
  • Hyperactive reflects
  • Poor feeding
  • Seizures
  • Rapid breathing
  • Slow weight gain
  • Tremors
  • Vomiting
  • Stuffy nose
  • Blotchy skin

Societal Effects Of Prescription Drug Abuse

In general, fatalities from automobile accidents are on the decline. However, more than a third of drivers who are killed in such accidents test positive for drugs, including prescriptions. Pain relievers, depressants, and stimulants can all greatly alter the physical and psychological states of the body. They also reduce reaction times and numb the reflexes in many cases, putting people at a much higher risk.

Pharmacy robberies are on the rise as well. Those with severe addictions will often turn to any means possible to get their drugs. If they’re unable to get them from family members, friends, or dealers, they’ll steal from pharmacies and even physician’s offices. A mentality of this sort makes neighborhoods and communities far more dangerous places.

Prescription drug abuse isn’t something that should be taken lightly. If you or a loved one is suffering from a dependency on prescription medication, it’s important to seek help. Withdrawals can range from uncomfortable to life-threatening. Treatment facilities have the knowledge and resources to evaluate the addiction and devise a rehabilitation program to meet the individual’s specific needs.

How To Dispose Of Unused Medication

How to Dispose of Unused MedicinesOccasionally, patients finish taking a medication without taking all the prescribed doses. In some cases, a physician may prescribe a medication on an as-needed basis. In others, the patient may fail to take all the prescribed doses for any number of reasons. Regardless of the situation, many people don’t know how to properly dispose of medications. This is your guide to disposing of unused medication in a safe and approved way.

The Right Way To Take Medication

In most cases, physicians prescribe the minimum doses needed to treat a medical condition. If a physician, pharmacist, or medication documentation encourages you to take the full recommended regimen, follow the instructions to the best of your ability. Unfortunately, many people fail to take their prescription medications as directed. Instead, they stop taking the medication without calling the doctor’s office or talking to a pharmacist.

After a surgery or accident, physicians may prescribe a painkiller on an as-needed basis. Those who take fewer than the recommended number of pain relievers can decrease their risk of medication dependence. In these cases, stopping a medication may make more sense than consuming the entire bottle. However, patients should consider appropriate methods of disposal instead of holding onto a bottle after the recommended prescription period.

How NOT To Dispose Of Medication

When you find an old bottle of prescription medication, don’t:

  • Give the meds to someone else who describes the same symptoms you experienced
  • Sell them
  • Give them away for recreational drug use
  • Use them yourself for recreational drug use
  • Keep them on hand “just in case” (prescriptions do go bad over time, and you should always take controlled substances under the guidance of a physician)
  • Dump them down the drain or toilet (dissolved prescriptions can leech into the groundwater and contaminate ecosystems)
  • Throw highly addictive medication into household garbage
  • Try to send them back to the manufacturer (manufacturers can’t accept used medications for recycling or disposal)
  • Leave unused medications in your cabinet, particularly if they’re potentially addictive

These methods of disposal can have long-reaching effects on other individuals, yourself, or the environment. If you aren’t sure how to dispose of unused medication, do some additional research using Google or ask your pharmacist for guidance.

How To Properly Use And Dispose Of Unused Medication

If you have any questions about the appropriate way to use, store, or dispose of a medication, contact your physician or a pharmacist. Prescription drugs may seem like a routine part of life, but handling them appropriately is critically important. Use these tips to properly use and dispose of unused medication:

  • Don’t move medications to different containers. The bottle/box has relevant information about dosing, side effects, and expiration dates. The bottle also protects certain medications from sun and moisture damage.
  • Read through prescription medication material. Ask questions at the physician’s office and at the pharmacy. Take the medication as prescribed and for as long as your physician directs. Pay close attention to any specific disposal directions.
  • Watch the expiration dates. Don’t take any medicine past its expiration date. Unlike food, medications can change after these important dates and may not provide the same effects or the same level of safety.
  • Always scratch out identifying information. Remove the label or scratch out any information on a medication bottle to protect your privacy and prevent others from identifying the type of medication you took.
  • Dispose of medications in an appropriate location:
  • You can dispose of prescriptions in household garbage if you mix it with something undesirable such as used kitty litter, coffee grounds, or old soup. Avoid using this method for highly addictive substances.
  • If available, take to a local “take-back” program. Locate a local program using the following resources:
  • American Medicine Chest This site offers an interactive map with local take-back sites.
  • World Medical Relief. This organization collects, evaluates, and redistributes unused medications to those in need around the world.
  • Your local pharmacist. Your pharmacist will take unused prescription medications back or have a list of resources you can use to safely dispose of potentially harmful substances.

Unused medications pose a distinct threat to the health of others and to the environment. Use safe disposal practices to reduce instances of prescription drug abuse and for peace of mind. In addition to prescription drugs, review disposal methods for over-the-counter medications too.

Prescription Drug Abuse-A National Dilemma

Pathways-- Prescription Drug Abuse National Dilemna -- 08-23-16According to a 2006 National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC) survey nearly 21% of the population in the U.S. reported non-medical use of prescription drugs at some point in their lifetime. The 2009 National Prescription Drug Threat Assessment states that unintentional overdose deaths resulting from prescription drugs has increased 114% from 2001 to 2005. And according to SAMHSA, prescription drug abuse is the second most common form of recreational drug use in America second only to marijuana. Given these statistics, it is clear that abuse of prescription drugs in the United States is a serious subject. For our neighbors to the north in Canada, the story is much the same with accidental deaths from opioid use having doubled from 1991 to 2004.

Is Prescription Drug Abuse More "Socially Acceptable" Than Illicit Drug Use?

For many people, the stigma of prescription drug abuse is negligible when compared to illicit drug abuse. After all, the substance of abuse was prescribed by a doctor and purchased in a pharmacy. It's not like the addict was buying heroin, cocaine, or some other street drug from a dealer. So where's the problem? This type of mentality is contributing to the problem, and it prevents many from seeking the prescription drug abuse treatment that they need.  The results of this attitude can can have drastic results.

An Increase In Prescription Drug Use For Recreational Purposes

The diversion of prescription drugs from their intended use has increased drastically from 2003 to 2007. According to the 2009 threat assessment, the diversion of opioid pain relievers has increased the most during this time period: hydrocodone (vicodin) 118%, morphine 111%, and methadone 109%. Other prescription drugs commonly diverted for abuse include Oxycontin which has a street name "80" or "Hillbilly heroin", Ritalin (Ritz or Vitamin R), and Xanax (zanies).  Prescription drug abuse treatment for many of these substances can be very difficult.

Where Do RX Drug Abusers Get Their Pills?

The diversion of these drugs occurs through various forms. 56.5% of abusers reported that they received the drugs from a friend or relative for free, and 81% of these people reported that the drugs were originally obtained from a doctor through a prescription. Other ways that prescription drugs are obtained for illicit use include theft from a family member or friend (5.2%), Internet purchases (0.5%), and purchase from a dealer (4.1%). Another common practice amongst addicts to obtain prescription drugs is "doctor shopping." This is the practice of visiting several doctors for the same "ailment" to receive multiple valid prescriptions.

Prescription Drug Abuse Among Teens

Among teens, the practice of "pharming" can have drastic results when they grab a handful of prescription pills out of a bowl and ingest some or all of them.

The prescription drug and opiate epidemic is spreading around the country at an alarming rate, and many are being caught up in its wake. It is imperative for those suffering from opiate addictions brought on by prescription painkillers to know that there is a way out; through detox, rehabilitation and determination.